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6320 Fall 2008 Article 2 Summaries

Page history last edited by reva22jo 11 years, 10 months ago

Ely, D. P. (2002). Trends in educational technology: Fifth edition. Department of Education: Washington, DC. ERIC document ED 477 511

 

Please select the chapter you want to summarize and add your name below the trend after the word "by."  This will be the chapter you are assigned to summarize. 


 

Chapter Assignments below:


Introduction:

 


Trend 1: Computer Access and Use

by  Darcy Carpenter

     In 2001 the Quality Education Data surveyed K-13 and found that there was one computer to 3.1 students (the low) and 25.3 students (the high end).  The survey was done in 250 districts that contolled 33% of all spending nation wide.  This survey represented access to a computer.  The data is showing that in K-12 computer access is near saturation.  The most recent report also indicates that teachers have access to a computer in their schools 99% of the time with half  reporting  the computer was actually in the classroom.  The students used the computers, most of the time, for word processing and creating spread sheets.  Other uses were internet research, practicing drills, problem solving and analyzing.

     At the University and college level reports indicate that 64% used instructional software and 67% offered online classes.  The degree of computer saturation is much less than in the K-12 group.  The ability for higher education institutes has leveled off due to the decrease in financial resourses.  18% of higher education facilities report a decline in technology spending.  Most university do use a uniform course management system for all of their online courses.  (Blackboard, WebCT, etc.)  The computers owned by the students are usually desk tops.  (about 71%)

     Emphasis seems to be on the computer itself and not the design and evaluation of the computer technology.  In the future it will be important to include discussions in technology that will include computer literacy for educators and the growth of distance education.  

 

 


Trend 2: Internet Access and Use 

 by


Trend 3: Television and Video  

 by Anetra Jones

 

     Without question, this generation truly is the media generation. Television and video remain the dominant medium choice. Educators have recognized the power of audio-visual materials to capture the attention of learners, increase their motivationa nd enhance their learning experience. Delivery technologies have also advanced, from filmstrips to cable television, to versatility of VCRs, DVDs and laser discs.

 

     The use of educational video and televison in classrooms has risen steadily over the past 20 to 30 years, according to a series of studies conducted by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Cable in the Classroom, established by the cable industry in 1989 provides private and public schools with access to educational  television programming through free cable connections. Thirty-nine national cable networks and approximately 8,500 local calble companies support the initiative. Statistics show, August 2000 81,056 schools had a cable television connection providing access for 86% of all students K-12 grade.

 

Cable in the Classroom offers over 540 hours of commercial-free cpyright-cleared programming monthl from provider such as the Discovery Channel, the Weater Channel, CNN, and the  History Channel Majority of the programs are broadcast in the hourly morning.

 

Video straming is also rapidly becoming the vext wave of technology innovation in the classroom.  Video streaming is a tool a tool that captures visual and audio content in a formt similar to a movie that can be replayed via the web, a cd, or DVD. As institutions move toward more intergarted electronic classrooms particulary those equipped with videoconferencing, they have an opportunity to use streaming video to capture course content for asynchronous education. While the typical use of streamed content has been to present materials for on -line courses,  researchers have found  it to be  highly valuable as a support tool for traditional and video conference courses.

 

Finally, with the advent of digital technology, the field is envolving to newer and ever greater potentials of adaptability in delivery.


Trend 4: Advocacy 

 by  Mary Montgomery

 

     Support for educational technology comes from not only educators, suppliers of hardware and software, but through other sources as well. When Executive and Legislative branches of government change every few years, priorities change too. This means that sometimes-educational technology is in the front of the list for the educational agenda and other times it is at the end or not listed at all. With the government changing every so often, the definition of "educational technology" changes with it. Does it include the hardware and software for everyone to use? Or does it only include the technology for those who are "special needs" students? (Pg. 17)

 

     Business and industry sector add support for educational technology. They usually provide the hardware, computers, and the software programs to the schools. They are now, however, having their own employees join the growing number of students in the educational technology classes. (Pg. 19)

 

     Other influential groups are found in the national government agencies and national associations. (Pg. 20) These groups help set forth the recommendations to those who need to know them, so that the policies makers can make new or change policies. The agencies and associations want to address the key elements of what they feel are the education process: tools, systems, processes, learners and teachers.

 

     However, enthusiasm for technology applications in distance learning is not universal. Instructors are warned before they teach any online class that the programs that the students use will not be universal. This means that the students will use what they have at their homes, and not a standard program. (Pg. 21)

Items related to technology at the 2001 National Education Association, are embedded in resolutions facilities, the contents of teacher preparation programs and time to teach. Here again the definition for "educational technology" is being raised. (Pg. 22) The more experienced teachers are somewhat scared to teach using or showing how to use the technology, because they themselves have not had the training to use it. The less experienced teachers are jumping right in and wanting to use it, however, the school may not be set up for the technology they want to use. Guidelines need to be put into place.

 

     The lack of technology – related resolutions in 2001 might reflect the acceptance by that time of technology in the classroom as an appropriate and valid teaching tool. (Pg. 22)

 

 


Trend 5: Home Use and Distance Education  

 by Sharon Moore

 

There is an increase in the usage of computers by American young and old. This trend considers homes as the new classrooms of today. Everyone is using computers and the Internet in their homes for home work, research, home schooling, and distance education. Amazingly enough, senior citizens are also included in this trend of home computer use.

 

Households that have school age children tend to have computers and Internet access in their homes. The U.S. Census Bureau noted in 2000 that about 65% of all children three to 17 years of age had access to computers in their homes. This was a 10% increase over a two-year time period. The popularity of home schooling is one factor contributing to this growth in this particular age group.

 

Based on this piece, the growth of distance education for students who are 18 years or older will more than double. Higher education institutions are offering more courses online to college students. These courses are convenient, offered by a number of institutions, and delivered in a variety of ways that appeal to adult learners. The National Center for Educational Statistics (2001) reported that distance learning courses offered by post-secondary institutions increased from 64% in 1995 to 79% in 1997-1998. 

 

From an administrative perspective, distance education has the potential reduce educational costs. Providing distance education reduces the need for physical classroom space as required by face-to-face learning environments. It also decreases the need for some other support services.

 

Most senior citizens that use the computer and Internet are financially secure and educated. Senior citizens also use computers and the Internet. Only 15% utilize the Internet and more than 50% are men.

 

Based on the implications outlined in this trend, it appears that learning will continue to grow beyond the confines of the traditional classroom and pedagogical methods. As traditional television delivery systems level off, the increase in access to the Internet will continue to fuel the expansion of distance education as options for students. 


Trend 6: New Delivery Systems  

 by Jesus Alfaro

 

 

Wireless handheld devices such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and laptops have inspired the use of technology in teaching and learning.  Remote controls for television, entertainment centers, and garage door openers seem to be the first devices that started the wireless trend.

 

Along with service and the use of intelligent network capabilities, the need for terminal and personal mobility were the functions that facilitated the movement and growth of the wireless world.  They include many types of technologies such as pagers, cordless and cellular phones, local and wide area wireless data systems and satellite-based mobile systems.  For education we can also include graphing calculators used in math and science.

 

Current handheld devices such as PDAs and calculators have more processing capability and greater memory capacity than the first personal computer mass-produced.  Some also have the ability to connect to the Internet.  Theses inexpensive device are becoming a common tool in the classroom.  The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics believe that students should have access to this technology and with a skillful teacher it will aid the students mathematics learning.

 

Walter Mossberg reflects on technology for the past ten years.  He comments how computers were assembled with the very basics.  They had no sound card or modems.  If your computer did have a modem, it communicated at 2,400 bits per second.  Very few people had access to the Internet and the World Wide Web didn’t exist yet.  Cell phone only existed in automobiles and handheld devices were still in the near future.  Many other devices have or are converting to digital; such as DVD players, digital camcorders, digital music players, and TV recorders. 

 

Mossberg predicts that wired PCs and other wired devices will be a thing of the past.  Wireless service provider and Palm Pilots are the foundation of the next wave of technology.  Since 1996, when the first Palm Pilot was released, many other companies have put out their own models of handheld devises.

 

Different schools are distributing PDAs to students.  There is Orland Park, Illinois that gave out over 1700, Forsyth Country Day School distributed 850 and in Wilmington, North Carolina, elementary students were given PDAs for research.

 

The laptop computer is another wireless device that’s multiplying in schools.  There are different levels of education, such as K-12 and colleges that are providing laptops to both students and faculty.  Although laptop computers are becoming more popular in the classrooms, because of their cost, it’s uncertain if they’ll facilitate mobile computing industry as much as hand held devices. 

 

According to the Web-based Commission for the President and Congress, the biggest trend is wireless connectivity and multipurpose and mobile devices will replace desktop computers.  Many schools are already implementing on campus wireless networks PDAs for field research in middle and high schools.  In addition to the networking and hardware, software has also been defined for the curriculum. 

 


Trend 7: Professional Development for Teachers  

 by Olga Garcia

 

     Professional development for teachers has increased in recent years due to the interest in improving the educational system.  Some educators are convinced that technology as the potential to improve learning, but acquiring technological skills may be problematical.  Many professionals feel adequate training needs to occur before the product/application can be introduced with confidence into the classroom.  In some educational institutions, companies are now offering in-services and trainings to assist educators in becoming effective and creative skilled professionals in their specific content area.  Funding is sometimes provided by the state or national agencies for professional development.  Knowledge and skills in instructional design and technology has increased in the past ten years; therefore, opportunities to develop those skills have increased as well.(Pg.44)

 

     Teachers are often rewarded when they obtain the knowledge and skills needed to integrate technology into the classroom.  For example, in the Northwest Independent School District in Dallas, teachers receive pay raises if they master the computer skills outlined in the rule adopted by the school board.(Pg.45)  In the state of Texas, teachers holding a renewal teaching certificate “are required to complete at least 150 clock hours of Continuing Education (CPE) during each five-year renewal period” (www.sbec.state.tx.us).

 

     In a report from NetDay, a national nonprofit educational technology organization, eighty-four percent of teachers voted that computers and access to the Internet improve education.  In addition, seventy-six percent of teachers agreed that the Internet is an important part in meeting standards and finding resources.(Pg.45)

 

     Technology tools will assist students in learning when instructors are encouraged and supported by parents and government agencies.  Educational technology will prosper because technology equipment is available.(Pg.45)

 

     In conclusion, teachers are becoming more technology proficient and are trying to integrate technology into the classroom.  Although, schools’ budgets are tight, funding for professional development is still available.(Pg.46)

 

 

 

 


Trend 8: Education Reform 

 by Pedro Luna

The most widely adopted trend in American educational institutions is the push and enforcement of using technology in education. This trend stems from using technology to support more students in distance education environments to attempts at solving educational problems occurring in face to face classes. Consequently, the recurring motto seems to be "Technology is the Answer! But what was the question?" The "question" refers to motivation, testing scores, quality of teaching, and more. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of educational programs before using technology to solve the "problem."

     Up to this point in education, new forms of educational technology have been introduced and advocated as a new tool that would revolutionize the American Educational System. Back in 1913, it was thought books would be obsolete in schools with instruction being delivered by the visual and auditory senses. With the advent of television in the 1950s and programmed instruction in the 1960s and microcomputers in the 70s and 80s, the use of technology for instruction was renewed multiple times and again considered the be all, end all for solving educational problems. In fact, in 1993, the U.S. Department of Education formally stated that technology in education was reaching a new high, but now in 2008, this statement could not be anymore truer.

     Six Regional Technology Centers were created in 1995 and expanded to ten centers by 2000 whose purpose was to help states, districts, schools, and other learning institutions use advanced technology to enhance teaching and learning. Every stated education department had a technology plan or was in the process of devising their plan and this endeavor was completed in 2002.

     Due to the leadership of the U.S. Department of Education, a report was released with these two basic principles: the question is no longer if technology should be used in education, but what makes for an excellent education in the digital age and how schools use these technologies to increase student learning. A 2001 survey revealed that more than half of instructors said they would be willing to try teaching online even though a majority of them had never done so before. So the mere fact that instructors are willing to attempt to integrate technology into their instruction shows a greater level of acceptance towards technology in education.

 


 

 

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