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Sylvia Reza

Page history last edited by Reza.Sylvia 11 years, 2 months ago

 

FACTS Design Challenge

 

Summary of Proposed Lesson:

In an effort to get 9th -11th grade students to understand Principles of Business, Marketing, and Finance concepts, the students will download Lemonade Tycoon 2 available at http://www.wildgames.com/games/lemonade-tycoon-2.  (This is a limited free trial per user so I would have to get a site base license for it).  Groups will be created by teaming up every third person in the class.  It will be interesting to watch them collaborate as each and every decision must be made along the way. This interactive game allows students to set up their lemonade stand business venture and “start building their empire”.  As a case study, the learner will test avenues of possible action by synthesizing the important variables to determine and apply the rules that govern the principles identified above.  They will make every business decision from the recipe chosen to the materials, location, assets, costs, even the staff.  Their decisions will ultimately determine the profit or loss of their venture.  Financial reports generated on a daily basis (the number of days in a class period will depend on the number of days the student covers transactions) will allow them to see their progress or lack of.  At the end of each business day, the students will compile their own spreadsheets based on reports generated by the program. At the end of the ten class periods, they will be allowed another three days to compile the outcome data accumulated in the spreadsheets. Two more class periods will be allotted to present their data analysis in an oral and visual report using various frequency distributions:  i.e., histograms, pies charts, and/or graph trend charts. They will draw conclusions and make sound recommendations based on the outcome. Individuals will also be asked to share their contribution to the venture. 

 

 

Name

Lemonade -Tycoon 2

 

Grade Levels

High School (9 - 11)

 

Subjects

 

Principles of Business, Marketing, and Finance; Economics; Accounting and Math 

 

Schedule [10 School Days]

[Day 1] Explain the concept of the game, create teams, collaboration commences and business venture begins

[Days 2-10] Run the business incorporating sound business principles incorporating the TEKS

[Days 11-13] Analyze and Compile Data for Oral and Visual Presentations

[Days 14-15] Presentations, individual project contribution and reflections, conclusions and recommendations 

 

Foundations

 

Literacy

Symbolic Competence:  The learners will analyze the following symbolic information presented throughout the interactive game:  marquee providing headline news in printed form; visual representation of customers' approval or disapproval in gestural format of the price, recipe, temperature of the lemonade, customer service; mathematical symbols embedded in the financial reports; graphical charts that daily track their sales; and background music that along with the above symbols shapes the mood and atmosphere.

Discourse Forms:  Students will learn to interpret/comprehend in a variety of literacy environments that will relate information through reading, learning, and understanding the challenges of the game.  Learners will study maps in this computer simulation to determine their business location..They will print graphs and financial reports studying and looking for trends in order to make relevant decisions involving the product they are selling.  Interactivity relies heavily on the visual world where the learners incorporate problem-solving strategies.

Cognitive Processes:  As the students work to build their empire, collaborators will pool their subjective individual cognitive strategies making business decisions based on personal mindsets and experience .  In order to construct knowledge, they must experience a deconstructing process, whereby the process of pulling apart and looking at symbols and discourses from different roles or perspectives provides more insight.  They will synthesize ,exploring options and possible outcomes in a nondiscursive way, not a formal or orderly thought process - more of an emotive process employing deductive reasoning.

 
Problem Solving

Strategies:

 

Synergy – joint work toward a common end

Memory as Information Processing – learners will transform information as they acquire and retain information perceived by the senses in aural, visual and symbolic form via the interactive game.  Elaborative processes that form the heart of memory will store the information in long term  retrieval memory.  The learners will extract meaning from concrete or symbolic experiences based on choices made for their venture linking new information with existing memory utilizing stored memory as a series of networks between concepts.  Collaboratively, incorporating brainstorming, they will dialog conceptual relationships exchanging, sharing, and sometimes compromising on strategies ultimately cementing the ideas in their memory.

Information Extending Processing – independently and collaboratively, the gamers will engage in inductive or convergent thinking.  Specific instances/generalizations (problem solving strategies) made by the learners will converge into new experiences where refinement and modifications generate patterns. Inductive reasoning  is processed utilizing selective encoding, sorting relevant from irrelevant information such as the varying costs of permits based on which district/location their stand is situated, perhaps by combining and comparing this and various other elements. It is at this point that the entrepreneurs’ experiences held in memory become important and they can recognize patterns in events that happen such as the relationship involving costs, price, expenses and revenue, utilizing practical reasoning seeing what in practice can be accomplished. Synthesizing skills are employed as the gamers collaboratively hypothesize as they design changes speculating effects.  The students will incorporate design skills assessing and revising their marketing plan while formulating their goals for the next day.  All problem solving and decision-making skills are associated with assessing consequences and evaluating choices. This hypermedia program will allow the learner to jump from one concept to another:  i.e., location, type of stand, customer base, change recipe, etc.  While all the concepts will be related in some fashion, collaboratively the team will be planning, interpreting, and analyzing information; combining prior knowledge with remembered information, ultimately sharing data, thereby transforming their own knowledge and understanding of the principles of business, marketing, finance, economics and accounting.

Information Rearranging – Collaboratively, the team needs to prioritize by determining what game they are going to choose:  time challenge where the goal is to earn as much money as possible within a set time limit as they strive to maximize their earnings every day; money challenge where their goal is to reach target earnings as quickly as possible; or career where the team is in it for the long-term.  Each game requires a different approach and strategy so they will need to recognize the strengths and the fallacies of each.  There are many assumptions that go into planning for a successful venture; therefore, the collaborators will have to incorporate various comparisons and contrasting strategies in order to infer their conclusions from evidence or reasoning. Also, utilizing deductive reasoning, the team will use evaluation skills assessing information such as the effect of local or national headlines or the next day's weather forecast. Budgets and inventory will need to be adjusted in regards to weather, circumstances, or local events.  The gamers will create their own spreadsheets from daily reports generated by the program. They will seek reasonable solutions to problems by looking for patterns in sales emphasizing reasoning, problem solving, making connections and communicating mathematical ideas.

Metacognition - the entrepreneurs learn about doing by doing and explaining.  Throughout the project, collaborating individuals have to reach a consensus on various components of their business venture.  The computer-based learning environment gives them an assortment of options they have to manipulate and strategize to solve problems.  The teams are presented with opportunities to talk about the processes used to think and to test their ideas by externalizing them.  Many times when one is expressing the strategies they developed to solve problems , the thinker becomes aware of his/her own cognitive abilities.  The mind is very flexible and it is during this time that the possibility exists not only for the thinker, but also for all individuals to be effectively engaged in a wider scale of discourse that prompts all involved parties to think more critically.

Putting the Problem at the Center

Situated Cognition - Social learning occurs when the collaborators interact sharing common goals.  The learners are immersed in an environment that most closely reflects the context in which their new ideas would be applied in the real world, processing concepts and information utilizing multiple opinions and perspectives as they strategize.

Anchored Instruction - The learners interest is maintained via this hypermedia program. The objects and data in the virtual world are real and the students are being asked to problem-solve utilizing critical thinking skills as they perform actual tasks they would realistically perform in the practitioners world.  This exploratory environment enables the novice a long-term acquisition of knowledge.

Problem-centered Learning - Lemonade Tycoon 2 affords the students the opportunity to gain knowledge and skills in:  the private enterprise system, economics, the impact of global business, marketing of goods and services, advertising, and product pricing.  They have to analyze the sales process and financial management principles as well.  In the end, the decisions made by the learner individually and/or collaboratively will reinforce, apply, and transfer in the form of volumes of knowledge as they pursue entrepreneurship - risk takers.

 

Authentic Anchored Problem:

N-Geners will operate a business as sole proprietors in the Big Apple (New York) via an interactive computerized simulation.  Collaboratively, they must build the business from the ground up.  They will support each other as real participants do in the real world through conversations, reflections and shared exploration.  They will strategize and problem solve throughout continual construction of both knowledge and the business.  This realistic role provides learners with opportunities that enhance transferability of knowledge. 

 

 

 
Knowledge

Disciplinary structures:
(real-world background knowledge aligned with TEKS)

  •   The learner must understand the Terminology and Concepts of: Investing Cash; Preparing Personal Financial Statements for Loan Purposes; Acquiring Assets; Economics and the Private Enterprise System; Marketing of Goods and Services; Advertising; Product Pricing; Financial Management Systems; Human Resources; Operating Expenses-Salary, Supplies, Equipment; Payroll-Social Security, Medicare, Federal Income Tax Withheld, Voluntary Deductions; Customer Service; Business Location; and Permit Requirements.

 

Disciplinary processes:
(critical thinking skills needed to solve the problem)

  •  Entrepreneur - calculated risk taker; Collaborator - connecting with employees, customers, suppliers, lending institutions, legal entities, etc.; Analysis of Data, Procedures, and Rules; Evaluation ability to assess credible, logical claims; Inductive/Inference - the ability to identify and consider relevant information about a situation or problem and draw reasonable conclusions. Deductive thinking - the basis of rational thought and information rearranging which is the process most dependent on formal learning.
     


Disciplinary discourses:
(stories or data that help students understand the underlying problem more effectively)

Disciplinary Narrative Discourse: Collaboratively the students will engage in inductive or convergent thinking/decision making, implementing the "7 Habits of Highly Successful Lemonade Tycoons".  The team/company will present their data analysis in an oral and visual report using various frequency distributions:  i.e., histograms, pies charts, and/or graph trend charts.

 

Disciplinary Expository Discourse: The different teams will draw conclusions and make sound recommendations based on the outcome. Individual team members will also be asked to share and reflect on their contribution to the venture and its outcome.

 

 

 

Information

 

Searching for Information

       Initially, the students will browse through the tutorials to familiarize themselves with the different options and features of the game by paying particular attention to the reports section.

    

       The students will access the following websites for business terminology/technical terms:

 

 

Business Glossary - Browse by Dictionary of Terms

http://www.allbusiness.com/3470944-1.html

Business Terms

http://www.babylon.com/define/22/Business-Dictionary.html

 

 

 

Sorting and Judging Information

As the game progresses, information will be presented  via the marquee in the form of headline news .  The learners will sort the information for its relevance and/or validity.  Independently and collaboratively, problem-solving strategies employing inductive reasoning will cause the students to pose questions to help sort through the information in order to distinguish between credible and noncredible information.

 

Creating and Communicating

This motivational, self-directed n-gener's game provides opportunities for teaching, learning, and knowledge shaping by hypothesizing, inferring, as well as inductive and deductive reasoning that empowers the students to build their lemonade empire.  Peer feedback (both within the team members and with other teams) is integral to creating and communicating.  Utilizing spreadsheets, the collaborators can bring order to the information presented in the daily reports as they draw conclusions based on cause and effect, or perhaps a trend or pattern. Throughout the game, as insights emerge, there will be much reflection and critique followed by elaboration.  The students will turn thoughts and experiences into an appropriate symbolic form gleaned from the knowledge gained by choosing an effective form for presenting their findings.  When preparing the presentation, the team, as the first audience, is able to step back and reflect on the cohesiveness of their ideas, revising as needed.  Peers (competitive teams) can provide insights to the presenters regarding their findings and/or format either confirming or challenging them causing possible reconsideration. 
Community  

 

 

 

Contents

 

§130.112. Principles of Business, Marketing, and Finance (One-Half to One Credit).

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student describes the characteristics of business. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the role of business in a global society;

(B) differentiate between goods and services;

(C) identify the types of business;

(D) compare the different forms of ownership;

(E) examine the organizational structure and functions of business;

(F) interpret the nature of balance sheets and income statements;

(G) describe factors that affect the environment; and

(H) explain how organizations adapt to current markets.

(2) The student defines ethics in business. The student is expected to:

(A) distinguish between ethical and unethical business practices; and

(B) contrast ethical, moral, and legal choices that relate to the decision-making process in business situations.

(3) The student differentiates between the types of economic systems with emphasis on the private enterprise system and the United States economy. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast the types of economic systems, including traditional, centrally planned, market, and mixed economies;

(B) identify business cycles;

(C) summarize the characteristics of the private enterprise system;

(D) identify factors affecting a business' profits, revenues, and expenses; and

(E) investigate potential causes of economic decisions such as supply and demand or consumer dollar votes.

(4) The student relates to the impact of international business on the United States economy. The student is expected to:

(A) compare domestic and world trade; and

(B) explain the impact of imports and exports on the United States economy.

(5) The student identifies the role and impact of government, the legal system, and organized labor in business. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate among the roles of government in business;

(B) describe types of activities performed by governments in business;

(C) ascertain the role of the legal system in business; and

(D) explain the role of organized labor in society.

(6) The student classifies types of businesses that market goods and services. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the importance of different marketing strategies for goods versus services;

(B) define the terms producers, raw-goods producers, manufacturers, builders, trade industries, retailers, wholesalers, and service businesses;

(C) categorize types of producers in a private enterprise system;

(D) identify types of retailers;

(E) explain the role of retailers in a private enterprise system;

(F) identify examples of wholesalers; and

(G) describe the role of wholesalers in a private enterprise system.

(7) The student analyzes cost and profit relationships in finance. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the concept of productivity;

(B) analyze the impact of specialization and division of labor on productivity;

(C) explain the concept of organized labor and business;

(D) examine the impact of the law of diminishing returns; and

(E) describe the concept of economies of scale.

(8) The student analyzes the sale process, techniques used to enhance customer relationships, and the likelihood of making sales. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the selling process; and

(B) discuss motivational theories that impact buying behavior such as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

(9) The student demonstrates how to advertise to communicate promotional messages to targeted audiences. The student is expected to:

(A) proofread ads for effectiveness; and

(B) analyze ad performance.

(10) The student understands how to increase sales by employing visual merchandising techniques and using special events to increase sales. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the use of visual merchandising in retailing;

(B) distinguish between visual merchandising and display;

(C) place merchandise for impact;

(D) plan special events; and

(E) prepare stores and departments for special events.

(11) The student understands the fundamental principles of money. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate forms of financial exchange, including cash, credit, debit, and electronic funds transfer;

(B) identify types of currency, including paper money, coins, banknotes, government bonds, and treasury notes;

(C) list functions of money such as medium of exchange, unit of measure, and store of value;

(D) describe sources of income such as wages and salaries, interest, rent, dividends, capital gains, and transfer payments;

(E) explain the time value of money;

(F) summarize the purposes and importance of credit; and

(G) explain legal responsibilities associated with financial exchanges.

(12) The student demonstrates an understanding of personal financial management. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the importance of providing accurate information;

(B) calculate gross and net pay;

(C) simulate opening and maintaining various types of bank accounts;

(D) reconcile bank statements;

(E) compare the advantages and disadvantages of different types of banking services;

(F) examine investment growth by developing a personal investment plan; and

(G) prepare an individual income tax return.

(13) The student knows that advertising is the paid form of nonpersonal communication about an identified sponsor's products. The student is expected to:

(A) list types of advertising media;

(B) differentiate between product and institutional advertising; and

(C) identify and evaluate elements of an advertisement.

(14) The student discusses economic concepts impacting prices. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the principles of supply and demand; and

       (B) describe the functions of prices in markets such as supply and demand.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Activities

 

Authentic

Collaboratively, the entrepreneur/free enterprise/sole proprietor business teams will:

A 1:  Select the district/location of their business

A2:  Order stock

A3:  Set the recipe

A4:  Set the price

A5:  Set Marketing Campaigns

A6:  Decide whether or not to change location based on customers and headlines

A7:  Buy, move, sell and/or upgrade stands (or not)

A8:  Decide on upgrades (or not) on personnel

A9:  Monitor customer feedback and respond- recipe adjustments, service time and price

A10: Strategize based on previous day's sales

A11: Manage their time

A12: Read daily reports -sales, expenses, revenue, cash flow, bank account, bills, etc.

A13: Interpret Profit and Loss statements, Balance Sheets and Performance Graphs

A14: Compare stands (if acquire more than one through continual construction)

 

Background Building

Diverse team equals diverse ideas which creates a rich environment for new forms of knowledge.

Individually and collaboratively, the team will:

B1, 6a, 7a, 8a, 9a, 11a, 13a, 14a:  Experience the free/private enterprise system

B2, 3, 4, 7b, 9b:  Consider ethical, moral and legal choices relating to the decision making process in business situations

B5, 6b, 7c, 8b, 14b:  Implement marketing strategies

B6c:  Adapt to market changes

B6d:  Explore the affect of the environment on business

B6e, 8c, 9c, 11b:  Investigate potential causes of economic decisions such as supply and demand or consumer dollar vote

B6f, 9d,:  Identify factors affecting profits, revenue and expenses

B8d, 9e: Dialog the role of laborers: their level of skill, productivity  and its impact on customer service

B10, 12, 13b:  Inspect and interpret financial statements

B15:  Ascertain the role of the legal system in business

 

 

Constructing

The teams will construct a market analysis for an associate interested in investing in and becoming a tycoon in the Lemonade Stand business.  Following is a list of possible topics to be examined:

C1a, 5, 10, 12a, 13a:  Market Growth utilizing historical data accumulated through their financial report

C2, 3, 4, 15:  Market Profitability based on buyer power, supplier power, barriers to entry (permits), competitors

C6a, 14a:  Market Saturation

C6b, 7a, 8a, 9a, 11:  Market Trends with emphasis on service and support

C6c,7b, 8b, 14:  Demographic Information based on Districts/location

C6d,7c, 8c, 9b, 12b, 13b, 14b:  Price Pressure caused by competition

C7, 8d, 14c:  Purchase of Equipment

C1-15aa:  Overall Key Success Factors

 

 

Sharing

S1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 11:  Students will present to a member of the business community practicing as a sole proprietor to make comparisons and to validate and/or improve their work.

S8:   Students will present to a member of the Texas Workforce commission who can provide feedback on minimum wage standards.

S10a, 12a, 13a, 14:  Utilizing a spreadsheet program, the team will present their data analysis in an oral and visual format using various frequency distributions:  i.e., histograms, pies charts, and/or graph trend charts.

S10b, 12b, 13b,14:  Students will present to a Banker to share in the financial analysis and successes or shortcomings of the venture.

S10d, 12c, 13c,14:  Students will present to an Accountant who can provide feedback on accurate record keeping.

S15a:  Students will present to a member of the city Health and Permit department who can provide feedback on the local, state and federal requirements for a sole proprietorship in the food service industry.

S1-15aa:  Students will present the results of their venture to their peers via the campus newspaper, the Voyager.

S1-15bb:  Students will share their new knowledge and general understand of the business world at the weekly Business Professionals of America meeting.

 

       

 
   

 

 

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

Design Challenge Three

 

 

The FACTS Model of Design

 

Teachers as Designers: A Cinquain Poem

 

Educator

Believer Constructor

Challenge, Create, Refine

Fulfillment, Gratification

Sculptor

 

Teachers as Designers: A Diamente Poem

 

Navigator

Planner, Advisor, Conductor

Knowing, Trusting, Assuring, Measuring

Mentor, Guide, Complacent, Content

Do-nothing, Good-for-nothing

Bystander, Spectator

Follower

The FACTS Model: A Summary

The FACTS model is based on building learning opportunities of shared knowledge, whereby students are active participants and collaborators instead of direction followers providing ownership.

 

The F is for Foundations

Foundation represents the fundamental principles that establishes the basis where life-long learning originates, challenging students to participate in the community as problem solvers.

 

The A is for Activity

Interactive learning activities are problem-based or problem-centered as is the real world; thereby connecting the learner into utilizing "usable knowledge" by "doing".

 

The C is for Content

Standards selected must be insightful, competitive, focused, and directional to ensure a bridge sustaining an effective social learning community.

 

The T is for Tools

Conduits, such as technology, should be selected and implemented to bridge the gap between potential and the ability to act on and influence the world

 

The S is for Systems of Assessment

Assessment instruments must be varied, yet must be connected to the objectives and activities implemented; therefore, maintaining student centered learning.

 

 

 

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Design Challenge Two

The Efficiency Model

A Learning Design

Top 10 Principles of the Efficiency Model

 

10. Standard schedules are the same everywhere – everyone takes a break/siesta at 3 pm

9. Standard conditions are the norm worldwide– stimulus and response are the same in any language

8. Standard instructions - one size fits all

7. Common sense because everyone is born with it

6. Competent advisors beginning with the superintendent, if you can keep one long enough

5. Discipline – whose definition? – Administration’s or the teacher’s

4. High ideals – let’s be realistic here – we’re supposed to chain them together, reinforce, repeat and practice – no child left behind

3. Planning – 45 minutes to plan, grade, copy machine, administrative conferences, and oh, lest we forget -- parent phone calls and conferences

2. Fair dealing – yeah you’re getting a fair distribution of students and competency levels

1. Efficiency Reward – expect a pay raise or a large stipend and a better conference period/schedule the next year

 

Top 10 Challenges to the Efficiency Model

 

10. Learning is FUN – allow students to PLAY their way to knowledge

9. Create environments that promote problem solving, cooperation, communication, critical thinking, and learning how to learn – seek and value students’ point of view

8. Connect separate subject areas - why not use the BCIS computer course to teach the English course’s MLA style for a social studies research paper on World War II

7. An education built on multiple intelligences can be more effective than one built on just two-intelligences, it can develop a broader range of talents

6. Along with whole- and small-group instruction, text book activities, and real-life problem situations, utilize software programs such as Integrated Learning Systems which are designed around the identification of a series of identified skills which takes into consideration objectives mastered and new objectives to be learned

5. Implement collaboration - enhancing responsibility, interactivity and connections with others

4. Prepare students for lifelong learning without leaving behind learners who do not have access to technology in their homes

3. Facilitate, don’t transmit– allow students to construct knowledge

2. Shift from teacher centered instruction to student centered instruction

1. Teachers need to learn new tools, approaches and new skills and accept technologies as “engines of change”

 

Step One: Define a Learn Goal

Learning Goal:  Given the student’s prior knowledge of fundamental accounting principles, the learner will be introduced to the basic features in the software Quickbooks.

 

Step Two: State Objectives

Learning Objective 1. Given a personal computer, QuickBooks program, a teacher produced typed copy with guided print screen instructions and utilizing the EasyStep Interview, (b) the accounting l student will be able to create a company, set up a chart of accounts, and journalize transactions from source documents (c) successfully completing an audit based on their financial reports

 

Step Three: Sequence Instruction

Sequence Instructions

1. Daily goal and objective is posted on the board. Goals, objective, and procedures will be discussed, as well as expectations, and knowledge and skills to be implemented. Students will be paired in groups of three based on individual strengths

2. The lesson will be applied to accounting in the real world and its use of current technology.

3. Students will be presented with the following materials needed to gain the knowledge and skills: accounting software, teacher produced typed copy with guided print screen instructions, a list of accounts used by the company and transactions for the month.

4. Utilizing the above materials as well as a computer and LCD projector, facilitator will model accessing the software and the process involving the EasyStep Interview to set up the company and create the chart of accounts, as well as how to make general journal entries.

5. Facilitator will check for understanding before proceeding by implementing questioning strategies that will evaluate knowledge and comprehension. Reteach, if necessary, utilizing peer collaboration.

6. Allow the students to demonstrate new learning while using the EasyStep Interview and the print outs provided. Facilitator will observe to determine the level of mastery and provide individual remediation as needed while walking around the room (or use SynchronEyes on teacher desktop) as the teams work independently pooling their knowledge resources.

7. Upon completion, reinforce prior knowledge that the students used to complete their objective and the significance of the decisions they made when setting up their company and necessary government documents: • Tax identification number • Income tax year period • Sources of income • Sources of expense • Company type • The chart of accounts and the basic accounting formula • Analyzing transactions using Debit and Credit

 

Step Four: Determine Learning Success

Determining Learning Success Upon setting up the company, creating the chart of accounts and journalizing entries, the learner will print out a series of reports. The learner will have been given another step-by-step teacher produced typed copy with guided print screen instructions for printing out the necessary documents – the chart of accounts, trial balance, general journal, and general ledger. In past experience, this educator has noticed that 95%-100% of the students’ reports are 100% accurate. For the few that are inaccurate, generally someone on the team will note minimal errors regarding wrong account numbers or data entered as debit and/or credit. If the error is still not determined, learners will collaborate with another team or ask for my input. At which point, I take them through a sequence of analysis. Beginning with the Trial Balance, do the Debits equal the Credits? Just because they equal does not necessarily mean they are correct. If they are in balance, compare the entries in the general ledger to the source documents. If the error has not yet been found, then the account that is off needs to have each transaction reanalyzed using the six step analysis: 1. Identify the accounts affected 2. What are they classified as 3. Did they increase or decrease 4. Which one did you Debit 5. Which one did you Credit 6. Is the equation still in balance. Upon correcting all reports and determining that they are accurate, the students are administered an Audit Test. The audit test consists of a series of questions regarding the company set-up and the analysis of the transactions based on the printed financial reports. The students are given two grades, one for the actual computer assignment and another for their responses to the Audit Test. Given that success has been determined by having confirmed the reports before the audit, generally student failure to succeed on the audit can usually be attributed to cultural differences in regards to the student’s inability to interpret and analyze the data produced. For example, a standard audit question such as: For the month of June, how much did the Cash in Bank account increase by? If the student entered the bank balance at the end of that month, he/she has not answered the question correctly. What the learner should have done was summed up the debit entries. It is usually these types of errors that determine the unsuccessful completion of the project. For those that did not meet their goal, as a facilitator, students are allowed to work together thereby facilitating learning and problem solving as they communicate ideas of how to correctly audit the data. As an educator, I am always available everyday until 5:30 P.M. for individual tutoring. Knowing that I am there, many of my students come in and collaborate during this time.

 

A Reflection and Critique of the Design

A Reflection and Critique of the Design Top 10 challenges to the Efficiency model Strengths Fun Environment Utilized Software for life long learning Implemented collaboration Constructed knowledge Facilitator utilized technology as an engine of change Multiple intelligences Limitations Did not connect accounting to economics Students audit capacities are different Design of the Lesson: The design was consistent with the attributes of today’s technology users by collaborating and connecting with each other as well as other teams; they were able to capitalize on the possibility of keeping financial records electronically – quicker than the manual method. My design was like learning outside the school in that students were allowed to collaborate on the project. The teams’ members participated in problem-oriented learning activities. There was authentic activity presented in the environment that encouraged collaboration. Reflects with constructivist learning or theories of multiple intelligences: the students generated information using linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, and interpersonal intelligence in their ability to interact with each other. 

 

 

 

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